SUNDIAL - Compute Local Apparent Sidereal Time


Compute Local Apparent Sidereal Time


Sidereal time is the hour angle of the vernal equinox, the ascending node of the ecliptic on the celestial equator. The daily motion of this point provides a measure of the rotation of the Earth with respect to the stars, rather than the Sun. Local mean sidereal time is computed from the current Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time plus an input offset in longitude (converted to a sidereal offset by the ratio 1.00273790935 of the mean solar day to the mean sidereal day.) Applying the equation of equinoxes, or nutation of the mean pole of the Earth from mean to true position, yields local apparent sidereal time. Astronomers use local sidereal time because it corresponds to the coordinate right ascension of a celestial body that is presently on the local meridian.

SUNDIAL -LINKS

Here are our favorite links that we think might interest you:
http://www.accuratesundials.com/site/591582/page/145745

Bird Houses/Feeders
A Bird's Home - A Bird's Home Nature Resource Center
A Plus Bird Feeders - Buy the bird feeder that you want right here online. Watch the birds flock to your backyard with beautiful bird feeders!
Barry's Bird Boxes - Quality birdhouse and bird feeder kits.
Bird Feeder Designs Unlimited - Wild Bird Woodworking Plans
Bird Feeders and Bird Houses - Backyard bird feeding is a convenient way to enjoy your local wildlife. We sell a top-quality line of made-in-the-USA bird feeders and bird houses.
Birdhouses -With a broad sellection of beautiful birdhouses, don't leave your lawn untended without one of our beautiful birdhouses.
Bird Houses and Birdfeeders - Beautiful wooden birdhouses and birdfeeders in easy-to-assemble kits to enjoy all year.
Birdhouses & Feeders Online - Seller of birdhouses, bird feed & feeders, hummingbird feeders, bird baths, wild bird watching guides and other books, music, software, binoculars, outside thermometers and stained glass items.
MarlonBirds - Marlon Birds sells quality bird feeders, bird houses, specialty houses, books, binoculars, cameras and accessories at great prices! We offer free shipping on all orders over $99.00.
Ourbirdbiz - We offer high quality birdhouses, birdfeeders, and bird baths to our customers. We offer a wide variety from beautiful Amish gourds as well as handpainted wooden feeders and houses.
Wild Birds and More - We offer a variety of bird houses and feeders in many different styles. We also have homes and feeders for other critters and may be attracted to your yard, such as, bats, butterflies and squirrels.
the Wildbird-Shop - Accent your garden with one of our quality birdhouses, bird feeders, or birdbaths. Bird food and other items related to backyard birds are also featured.
Flags
American Flags : American Flag- Great selection of American Flags and Flags of the World.
www.AmericanFlagsExpress.com - America’s #1 choice for U.S. Flags & Flagpoles. We also offer a wide selection of country flags, state flags and 27,000 other flag and flagpole products for home, business promotional & community applications. Order online or call (262) 783-4800
D & M Flags- The Rotating Flagpole displays the flag at a 45 degree angle & rotates with the wind, kind of like a weather vane. They're compact & portable making them ideal in any situation.
FlagShack.com - We sell flags from around the world - American, state, international and historical flags along with decorative flags and banners.
Seidel Flags & Flagpoles - Seidel Flags – high quality Perma-Nyl 100% nylon flags. Civil war flags, confederate, state, country, and international flags. Accessories – flagpole stands, ornaments, cases, and more. Aluminum flagpoles, residential flagpoles, flagpole lighting.
Fountains
Choice Fountains, Fine Quality Water Fountains - We are the premiere online store for fine quality water fountains at an affordable price. Free shipping and secure online shopping. Includes Gemstone, Tabletop, Ocean, Waterfall and Floor water fountains.
Discount Pond and Fountain Pumps - Pond pumps and fountain pumps, highest quality - lowest price.
Fountains and Ponds - Decorative garden fountains and pond fountain statuary in bronze, brass and resin. Garden ponds including preformed ponds and pond kits, bird ponds, pond accessories and water treatments. Create a peaceful outdoor place to reflect.
Garden Wall Fountains - Quality wall fountains. Great selection!
Graystone Creations - A full line of submersible fountain, aquarium, pond, and hydroponic water pumps. 10% discount to customers who add "www.accuratesundials.com" to the comments section on order page.
Misting Fountain Shoppe - Our beautifully handcrafted Misting Fountains can serve as an Air Purifier, Cool Mist Humidifier, Aromatherapy Diffuser, and Natural Ionizer refreshing the air quality in your surroundings and helping to remove dust, pollen, bacteria, mold spores, smoke, smog, pet dander.
Outdoor Garden Fountains - Outdoor Garden Fountains sells a wide variety of high quality garden fountains for indoor and outdoor use.
Peaceful Water Fountains - Your source for garden, patio and table top fountains for your home and desktop fountains for your office. We have artistic, soothing, and relaxful fountains in a wide variety of styles and discount prices.
Wall Fountains - Wall fountains made from durable, great looking fiberglass. Designed to be wall mounted. Self Contained. For garden or indoor use.

Gardening & Landscaping
Avant-Gardening: Creative Organic Gardening - 'YOU CAN GROW' using sustainable organic gardening as a medium for creative expression and spiritual growth. Extensive organic gardening information, workshops, monthly newsletter, Formal Tea Gardens, virtual tours, and more!
Automatic Plant Watering System at Perkyposey.com - Automatic plant watering system from Just Imagine Industries Inc. provides easy and convenient solution for watering indoor potted
plants.
Cedar Furniture-Christian Giving with CedarLiving - CedarLiving.com is a home to quality handcrafted outdoor Cedar furniture and is a charity contributor to Christian organizations with 10% of all profits distributed between these charities.
Earthmarks Garden Markers - Making our mark, one garden at a time.
Garden Art With a Smile - Wonderfully detailed, cast stone, figures and plaques. Garden creatures, bird feeders and welcome signs to add charm.
Garden Forever - Gardening for people of all ages, abilities and lifestyles.
Gardening With Kids - Get kids started in gardening while they are young, and help them build a lifelong interest.
Guarden - A revolutionary garden growing system that evolves with the seasons.
Landscape Construction New Hampshire - Landscape construction and design by Landscape Support Services of Southern New Hampshire
Light in Bloom - Sculpted Copper Garden Lighting. Signed and Numbered Original Art!
My Ideal Garden - Your guide to creating an outdoor space in which you can truly feel at home.
Olive Barn - Outdoor garden decor and home accents
Patio and Garden Decor - Here at Patio and Garden Decor you will find a terrific selection of patio and garden items; such as water fountains, birdbaths, furniture, statues, and much, much more!
Picnic tables - At National Outdoor Furniture, we specialize in the consultation and supply of outdoor furniture such as patio furniture and pool furniture, used in commercial, contract and decorator settings.
Potting Benches - We offer the largest selection of potting benches, potting sheds and potting tables at the lowest prices guaranteed.
Redwood Trellis - Handcrafted high quality redwood garden trellises. Each redwood component is carefully hand selected to give the finished trellis the rare beauty that only California redwood can provide.
Safe Harbor Woodcrafters - Hand-crafted Mahogany, Teak, Cedar and Cypress Adirondack chairs, children's chairs, tables, settees and ottomans for the quality conscious consumer.
Visit Gardening For All Seasons Now -
Guide to perfect gardening with articles and tips for seasoned and novice gardeners from planning to composting, your local weather, special features, house plants and Monthly gardening calendar. Free e-newsletter and recipes.
Wind Chimes, Fountains, and Bird Feeders - Rutherford Gardens is an online store featuring a line of high quality garden accessories, including a variety of fountains, bird feeders, bird houses, and great sounding wind chimes.
Water Fountains and Garden Decor -Attention Gardeners! Add something special to your yard, patio, or garden with our delightful and affordable water fountains, patio accents, yard ornaments, and garden decor!
Gifts
Clocksnstuff.com - Secure Internet Shopping ... Wind Chimes,Garden Flags,Clocks and other unique Home Decor and Gift Items.
Deckthetree.com - Garden decor. Christmas decoration for your home or tree. Gifts and collectables all year round.
Diversified Showcase is your online gift stop for home and garden! Sign up for our monthly recipes newsletter & be entered in our product giveaway.
Gift Ideas: Home and Garden - Great home and garden gift ideas!
Great Garden Gift Ideas
Home and Garden Decor - Our online gift shop is filled with many beautiful and inexpensive decorating items including accents, home and garden decor. We have very unique gifts for that hard to buy for person and our low prices should fit your home decorating or gift buying budget.
Housewarming Gifts and Traditions - Great information and housewarming gift ideas!
Theisen Clock & Novelty - Handcrafted solid body hardwood Desk and Mantel Clocks in Hand Rubbed Oil finish, Americana, Birdhouse and Texas Wall Clocks, Apple Clocks, Boxes, Candlesticks and Lamps, Teacher Gifts, Apple and Patriotic Decor.
Ultra Modern and Retro Clocks - The Little Clock Shop sells high design contemporary wall clocks, desk clocks, gear clocks, flip clocks, and pendulum clocks. Perfect clocks for corporate and personal gifts!
Watches and Time Keepers, Replicas, and Timeclocks - A Great INFORMATION and BUYERS GUIDE for Watches and Time Keepers, Replicas, and Timeclocks online. 

Greenhouses
American Greenhouse Kit Company - Largest distributor of hobby greenhouses.
Backyard Greenhouses, USA - Backyard Greenhouses is one of North America's largest suppliers of Hobby Greenhouse Kits.
Backyard Greenhouses, Canada - Backyard Greenhouses is one of North America's largest suppliers of Hobby Greenhouse Kits.
Easy Grow Greenhouses - Our prism design captures more light than any greenhouse on the market.
Europa Manor Greenhouses - Designed to withstand hail, snow, rain, and the beating sun over the many seasons.
Greenhouse Showcase - A wide variety of greenhouses, greenhouse accessories, sheds, planters & stands. Secure online ordering.
Juliana Greenhouses - Constructed with engineered aluminum and twin wall polycarbonate.
Little Greenhouses - The solution for keeping your plants thriving year round.

Home Improvements & Decor
4BackYards - Offering affordable greenhouse kits, pond kits, and portable hot tubs.
Aquasana Store - Aquasana Store offers the finest water and shower filters by Aquasana at
discounted prices.
BeautiBrick, Inc. - The sale of pavers & retaining walls, paver installation tools and accessories, Paver Lights and more.
The Bedroom Furniture Source - Bedroom and garden furniture and bedroom related products including adjustable beds, airbeds, loft beds, Murphy beds, hammocks, comforters and foam mattresses.
Best Adirondack Chair - Manufacturer of the best in adirondack chairs and cedar outdoor furniture since 1955.
Casual Outdoor Patio Furniture - Outdoor patio furniture store carrying outdoor furniture, patio furniture, garden furniture, patio furniture covers, chaise lounges, pool floats and outdoor living products.
Christianne Planters and Statuary - Classic hand cast fiberglass planters, statuary, urns, fountains, pedestals and columns for your interior and exterior landscaping.
Classic Indoor-Outdoor Home and Garden Décor - BackYardWonderland.com offers very affordable home and garden décor including water fountains, statuary, birdbaths, birdfeeders, birdhouses and much more with everything on Sale and a unique buy two or more and save an extra 10% discount!
Copper weathervanes - Vinyl Cupolas - Wood Finials - Offers cast aluminum, copper and steel weathervanes with window and louvered cupolas and wood finials at lowest price.
Exterior Worlds - Home & Garden Decor - Offering a large selection of home and garden decor.
FORZA Accessories for the Home & Garden - High Quality, Uniquely Designed decorative and functional accessories for the Home & Garden. Weathervanes, sundials, statuary, fountains, birdbaths, doorstops and doorknockers plus a wide variety of other items...
Garden Gnomes & Traveling Gnomes - Gnome Town USA is the destination for gnome enthusiasts who want a garden gnome statue or traveling gnome figurine.
Kit City - A little paradise in your backyard.
Visit Cedar Furniture Outlet: Cedar patio, deck, and lawn furniture. Quality at an affordable price.
Hammocks - Hammocks.com has a huge selection of hammocks, stands and accessories at great prices. All major brands, styles, sizes offered. Order toll-free or online. Fast shipping. 100% satisfaction money-back guarantee.
Hammocks - Hammocks: information on rope hammocks, island hammocks, chair hammocks, rope and nylon hammocks.
Home Decor - Home Furnishings - Garden Accessories - Stylish Home Decor. Find bedding, furniture, wall art, rugs, garden accessories, outdoor furniture and more. Everything for home and garden decorating at HomeDecorConnection.com
Home Decor, Home Furnishings, Garden Decor & Water Fountains at Global Discount Products - Home decor, home furnishings, garden decor, water fountains and more from Global Discount Products - all at wholesale! Secure Site, Weekly Specials. Great Service!
Home, Patio and Garden-Décor & Accents - Home and office decor, knick-knacks, gifts & accessories. Patio and yard decorations, lawn ornaments, garden accents & accessories. Articles and information. Seasonal, holiday and special occasion items also!
House to Home Ideas - Our quality Country and Cottage home décor includes hand painted furnishings, lighting, mirrors, wall decor, accessories, welcome signs, mailbox covers and home decorating items. We pride ourselves on our exceptional customer service.
Indoor & Outdoor Charcoal & Gas Grills - Offers Chimeneas, gas grills, smokers and portable grills. Secure online ordering.
Iron Accents - Discover decorating with a wrought iron flair! We've assembled a complete wrought iron furniture collection to satisfy your every need!
Kiki's Little Shops - Unique Gifts and Collectables for less than retail at Kiki's Little Shops. Yearly prize drawings.
Outdoor & Patio Furniture - A comprehensive range of patio furniture for your home and garden.
Outdoor Furniture - Unique teak, cedar, and oak patio and outdoor furniture. Great selection and lowest prices for outdoor furniture including tables, benches, chairs, ottomans, and bar furniture. Always Free Shipping at The Indoor Outdoor Store.
Outdoor Furniture - The Cedar Station - Outdoor Teak and Cedar Furniture for any yard or garden. Free Shipping!
Outdoor Patio Furniture, Garden Furniture, Poolside, Beach Furniture, Sun Loungers, All Weather Outd- Outdoor Furniture manufacturer offers weather proof outdoor furniture, patio garden furniture, poolside sunloungers for hotels, restaurants, cafe
Outdoor Teak Furniture, Teak Wood Patio Furniture - We offer quality teakwood garden furniture for patios, sunrooms, decks, garden spaces, conservatories, and indoor settings.
Patio and Outdoor Furniture - Your search for the perfect outdoor furniture ends here! Affordable furniture for your patio, pool and garden areas."
Picnic Baskets Galore - We have a variety of picnic products from picnic baskets, picnic backpacks, picnic tables, wine bags, wine coolers, and many other picnic accessories. Popular brands like Picnic at Ascot, Picnic Time, Optima, and many more available!
Picnic tables - At National Outdoor Furniture, we specialize in the consultation and supply of outdoor furniture such as patio furniture and pool furniture, used in commercial, contract and decorator settings.
Stained Glass Patterns - Free stained glass patterns, stained glass windows, stained glass patters, pictures, maps, tutorials, screensavers.
Stucco siding - Prime Stucco offers a wide range of exterior pre-coated stucco products such as Window Trims, Cornices, Columns, Quoins and Sills & Bands for residential and commercial architectural projects. Our products are built to be used on stucco sidings. Visit our website and see how you can add beauty and elegance to your building project at a very low cost. Or partner with us, or become a distributor or our stucco products.
Superior Java Teak and Cedar Outdoor Deck & Patio Furniture - We offer a wide selection of Handcrafted Outdoor Furniture made from Genuine Java Teak and Western Cedar; including chairs, tables, benches, patio sets, and much more.
T.M. Hoff Handmade - Handcrafted, award-winning patio lanterns, bird feeders, rain gauges and more. Lifetime guarantee!
Teak Furniture - For all your outdoor furniture needs. We carry a large selection of teak outdoor furniture, hammocks, and garden decor.
Teak Furniture Showcase - Offers teak chairs, tables and dining sets for indoor and outdoor use. Secure online ordering.
The Cedar Site - The Cedar Site offers excellent outdoor weather-resistant patio furniture, garden furniture, lawn furniture, and unfinished furniture.
Weather Stations at WeatherShack.com - Wireless weather stations and wireless thermometers for both home and office. Such stations range from simple to complex.
WTS - Whirlpool Tubs and Spas - Whirlpool Tubs and Spas has been serving homeowners and builders for nearly two decades. Over that time we have installed and serviced thousands of whirlpools, tubs, saunas, and spas. We are manufacturers of whirlpool baths, tubs and spas offering wholesale pricing to the general public.
WhichEverWayTheWindBlows - Add that finishing touch to your home. Choose from our incredible large selection of over 600 high quality, handcrafted weather vanes, wind chimes and sun catchers.
Yard Swing - An American staple the yard swing is as symbolic as the mailbox at the end of the drive. Browse hundreds of yard swings at PatioLivingPlus.com.
Zigans Woodcrafts your online plans store - We are adding new woodworking plans weekly for all levels of woodworking.

Ponds

All About Water Gardens 
- Look no further for information and resources regarding building your ideal water garden.
The Alternative Ponds and Garden Mart, Inc. - Pond and water garden information and pond supplies.
GardenSM.com - Everything you need for your backyard pond, including preformed ponds, liner pond kits, submersible pumps, and pond accessories. Online retail and wholesale.
MyYardPond.com – For all of your Pond and Water Garden Supplies
Pond Kits - The best selection of Aquascape pond kit packages to choose from; also the absolute lowest prices anywhere!
Pond Supply from Natural Solutions Etc - garden pond supply including barley straw bundles for pond algae.
Weller’s Ponds – Pond Kits, Supplies, and Services - Shop online for Aquascape Design Pond Kits and all supplies needed for a successful pond. Also learn about our pond services provided in PA and MD.

Sundials
Sundials on the Internet - The most comprehensive sundial website on the internet.
North American Sundial Society (NASS) - Much information about sundials and many links.

Windchimes and Bells
Best Sounding Wind Chimes - Grace Note wind chimes. Highest quality and best sounding wind chimes.
Wind Chimes - The sound of the soul will come alive with the harmonic flow from our most popular wind chimes. Take home your very own outdoor wind chime today.
Wind Chimes Free Shipping - Grace Note wind chimes. Wind chimes help the garden sing! Hear audio samples.
Wind Chimes Pavilion - Huge selection of world class wind chimes from Woodstock, Whispering Winds, Music of the Spheres and other leading wind chime manufactures.
You can call us at(262) 387-9992 for more information.

SUNDIAL - LESSONS

 
Schools  
2 FREE Sundial Lesson Plans are available in .pdf format. They are not on our website yet, so please call Dave (262-365-3610) with your email address and he will email them to you.


http://www.accuratesundials.com/site/591582/page/4569479

SUNDIALS - HISTORY

History of Sundials
Sundials have come a long way since they were first invented. Once just a stick in the sand or marks on a wooden shoe, sundials have turned into beautiful timepieces that can be passed down through generations. Multiple societies simultaneously had sundials such as Egyptian obelisks and Babylonian shadow clocks, but the modern sundial was perfected by the Romans. The Renaissance saw an increase in sundial production, and the sundial became a cornerstone of time-telling society. Currently, the sundial is used more for beauty than telling time. The largest sundial, the Tapei 101, is located in Taiwan and is actually a skyscraper that tells time by casting a shadow on its adjoining park.


The sundial is the oldest known device for the measurement of time and the most ancient of scientific instruments. It is based on the fact that the shadow of an object will move from one side of the object to the other as the sun “moves” from east to west during the day. 

5000-3500 BC 

The first device for indicating the time of day was probably the gnomon. It consisted of a vertical stick or pillar; the length of the shadow it cast gave an indication of the time of day. 

3500 BC 

Sumer becomes the world’s first civilization. (Sumer is an ancient region of southern Mesopotamia – which is now southeastern Iraq.) 

2500-2000 BC 

Babylonians and Egyptians build obelisks (slender, tapering four-sided monuments). Their moving shadows formed a kind of sundial, enabling citizens to divide the day into two parts by indicating noon. They also showed the year’s longest and shortest days when the shadow at noon was the longest or shortest of the year. Later, marks around the base of the monument would show further time divisions. 

800 BC 

More precise sundials are built in Egypt. The earliest known sundial still preserved is an Egyptian shadow clock of green schist dating from at least this period. It consists of a straight base with a raised crosspiece at one end. The base, on which is inscribed a scale of six time divisions, is placed in an east-west direction with the crosspiece at the east end in the morning and the west end in the afternoon. The shadow of the crosspiece on the base indicates the time. 

300 BC 

The earliest description of a sundial comes from Berossus, a Babylonian priest and author. His sundial is a cubical block into which a half-sphere is cut. A small bead is fixed at the center. During the day the shadow of the bead moves in a circular arc, divided into twelve equal parts. Because the length of the day varies with the season, these hours likewise vary in length from season to season and are thus known as “temporary hours.” (“Equal hours” were decided upon about 1300 AD, when mechanical clocks were invented.) 

290 BC 

The first sundial is set up in Rome. It has been captured from the Samnites. 

250 BC 

The Greeks develop and construct complex sundials using their knowledge of geometry: 
- Apollonius of Perga develops the hemicyclium by using a surface of conic section upon which the hour lines are inscribed; thus providing greater accuracy. 
- Ptolemy uses the analemma, a device that enables shadows to be projected geometrically onto flat surfaces inclined at various angles to the horizontal. 

164 BC 

The first sundial is constructed for the city of Rome designed by architect and engineer Marcus Vitruvius Pollio. He mentions many types of sundials, some of which are portable, in his great work De architectura. 

100 BC 

The Tower of the Winds is constructed in Athens. It is octagonal in shape and contains eight sundials. Sundials facing various cardinal compass points were in use at least since then. 

Birth of Christ 

100 AD 

It is discovered that the shadow cast by a slanting object is a more accurate timekeeper than a shadow cast by a vertical object. If the shadow-casting object is parallel to the earth’s axis, the direction of its shadow at any given hour of the day is constant regardless of the season of the year. 

150 AD 

The Greeks introduce trigonometry into mathematics, thus supplying the tool for plotting hour lines with simple arithmetic calculations instead of the more cumbersome geometric constructions. This method will be exploited by the Arabs and later by European sundial makers. 

1200 AD 

Ab û al-Hasan writes on the construction of hour lines on cylindrical, conical, and other surfaces and is credited with introducing equal hours, at least for astronomical purposes. 

1300 AD 

The first all-mechanical clock is made. It is a large iron-framed structure, driven by weights. The function of the first European clocks was not to indicate the time on a dial, but to drive dials that give astronomical indications, and to sound the hour. They are located in monasteries and public bell towers. The earliest surviving example, constructed in 1386, is in Salisbury Cathedral, England. Mechanical clocks utilize equal hours. 

1500-1800 AD 

The great age of the European sundial. Sundials with equal hours gradually come into use. 

1635 AD 

Galileo designs a clock using a pendulum as the timekeeping element. 

1656 AD 

The first pendulum clock model is completed by Christian Huygens in Holland. The use of the pendulum improves the timekeeping of clocks so much that all new clocks incorporate it. 

1777 AD 

French general Lafayette wants to express his respect and admiration for his ally and friend General George Washington during the American revolution. He chooses as his gift a silver Explorer sundial. 

1700’s AD 

Clocks and watches begin to replace sundials. They have the advantage of not requiring sunny skies. They are, however, often unreliable and depend upon sundials to set the true time. 

Early 1800’s AD 

Mechanical clocks become accurate enough and inexpensive enough to displace sundials as the timepiece of choice. 

Because of the earth’s rotation, a town 20 or 30 miles east or west has it’s clock set slightly differently. Your noon arrived somewhat before that of your western neighbor but sometime after that of your eastern neighbor. This made little difference because a resident might never travel to either of his neighboring towns. 

1884 AD 

Railroads are the preferred method of travel. Railroads demand schedules and schedules require “true” time. Along a 100 mile stretch of tracks there might be 6 towns with 6 different town clocks all different from the others. Passengers need to know when the train will arrive and depart and railroaders need to know when to send the next train in order to avoid accidents. 

A conference is held and an agreement reached to divide the United States of America into four time zones, each 15 degrees wide – Eastern, Central, Mountain and Pacific, and all stations in a time zone would carry the same time. In fact, train time which is rigorously held to by the railroads becomes the time that cities and citizens set their clocks by. The train whistle becomes the signal for setting clocks. 

1979 AD 

The founder of Accurate Sundials, LLC starts designing, building and testing many types of accurate sundials. He designs a computer program for each major type of sundial to make the 174 calculations which go into each custom design. 

Present 

The knowledge gained by Accurate Sundials, LLC in 24 years of research, along with expert support in computer aided design and machine shop technology, results in the attractive offering of elegant and accurate solid brass, copper and aluminum sundials you will find in it’s catalog. They also offer build-it-yourself site-specific layouts and directions for educational experience and project enjoyment. 

Future 

Check back often to see new and exciting accurate sundials added to the offering of Accurate Sundials, LLC. 

 http://www.accuratesundials.com/site/591582/page/143772

Please call us at (262) 365-3610 for more information.

SUNDIALS - BASES

Sundial Bases
Sundials look and work best when placed on a pedestal. Sundial Bases will bring attention to your sundial and accent your garden. The majority of sundial bases and pedestals are manufacturer specific, so if you are unsure of whether or not your sundial and base match, we'll be more than happy to answer your questions. Please feel free to call our Customer Service toll free number - (800) 967-7654.

Sundial Info

There are many ways to permanently mount your sundial. The method you employ can be as simple or as elaborate as you choose. Some require only a little shopping. Some will require a little “elbow grease.” Another may require engaging a mason for a small job. Choosing the “right” option for you will greatly enhance the appearance of your grounds and showcase your sundial. 

Almost all of the materials and tools for these pedestal options are available at your local Home Depot. 

1. Ready-Made Pedestals 

Most garden stores have a large inventory of pedestals. Their sundials don’t display accurate time but their pedestal selection is great! With a little ingenuity and some pliable adhesive available at any hardware store, they can be easily adapted for use as a sundial pedestal. Make sure your dial is level and properly oriented to true north. 

2. Wild Birds Unlimited Off-the-Shelf or Custom-Made 

Wild Birds Unlimited (300 stores nationwide) has a wide variety of wrought iron structures, which are suitable for affixing your sundial to. The WBU storeowner nearest our headquarters assured us that he could have structures custom made to suit this purpose. 

3. Directly on Deck or Deck Railing 

Cut a 2" X 10" (or 2" X 12") pressure treated board to fit your dial and screw the board to your deck or deck railing. Get it as level as you can. You may have to use wooden shims to accomplish this. Screw (or glue) your dial plate to your board, perfecting the leveling process with the use of wooden shims, if necessary, and make sure it is properly oriented to true north. 

4. 4 X 4 “Mailbox” Post 

Obtain a cedar, pine or pressure treated 4” X 4”. Cut to desired length. Dig a 2 ½’ deep hole with a posthole digger. Pour in about 6” of gravel. Place the cut end of the 4 X 4 into the hole and fill to ground level with cement. Make sure the 4 X 4 is level (straight vertical). A post level (available at HD for about $3.00) will prove to be useful for this purpose. 

Cut a 2" X 10" (or 2" X 12") pressure treated board to fit your dial and screw the board to the “factory end” of the 4 X 4. Get it as level as you can. You may have to use wooden shims to accomplish this. Screw (or glue) your dial plate to your board, perfecting the leveling process with the use of wooden shims, if necessary, and make sure it is properly oriented to true north. 

5. Stair “Starting” or “Landing” Newel 

Obtain a cedar, oak or pressure treated newel. They are more ornate than a 4 X 4 and are available in 48” and 54” lengths. Some newels have a “ball” on their tops that must be cut off to provide a level mounting surface. Complete dial mounting the same as in 4 X 4 “Mailbox” Post above. 

6. 3” Aluminum Lamp Post 

These are available (at HD) in many different finishes, i.e. bronze, brass, white and black. Cut lamp post to desired length and follow mounting instructions included with lamp post, installing it as level (straight vertical) as you can. It can be mounted on a deck by using the cast aluminum pier base or in the ground. 

Cut a 2" X 10" (or 2" X 12") pressure treated board to fit your dial and screw a cast aluminum pier base to it’s under side. Place the pier base (with dial board affixed) on the lamp post. Make sure it fits on snuggly. You may have to use some tape around the lamp post to accomplish this. Screw (or glue) your dial plate to your board, perfecting the leveling process with the use of wooden shims, if necessary, and making sure it is properly oriented to true north. 

7. Brick Structure 

This option is a little more expensive but can provide a striking addition to your grounds and a special showcase for your sundial. Engage a mason to build a brick pedestal with a cement top. Your sundial can be embedded directly into the cement, making sure that it is level and properly oriented to true north. 

8. Cement Bed 

This is a great option for a terraced or tiered garden or grounds. Dig out 6” of earth (more for extremely soft soil) to form a square hole a little larger than your sundial. Place plywood “forms” along the sides of the hole, extending from the bottom of the hole to 3” above ground. Fill the hole with gravel leaving about 2” for the cement bed. Fill the hole with cement to the desired height and imbed your sundial into the cement, making sure that it is level and properly oriented to true north. When the cement is thoroughly dried, remove the forms and fill in with earth. 

With some careful cutting and shaping of plywood forms, you could build a cement bed for your sundial directly on a large landscaping rock! 

9. Tree “Stump” 

Large, older trees are being taken down from parks and home landscapes regularly. Call a tree service and ask them to cut a piece out of a tree they are cutting down which is large enough in diameter to suit your taste and the exact height you desire. 

The section of tree could be cut at an angle to accommodate a slope in your yard at your chosen sundial location. A little shimming may be required to make sure the top is level but you wind up with a stunning pedestal. Place this section of tree upright in your yard and affix your sundial to it. 
http://www.accuratesundials.com/site/591582/page/146299
 
You can call us at (262)365-3610 for more information.

SUNDIAL - Sun Time vs Clock Time

The sun will appear at times to be faster and slower 

than our watches read, again because sun time and

clock time are not the same. The sun appears "fast" 

from mid-April through mid-June, and early 

September through late December. When the sun 

appears "fast" it will reach sun-noon (be directly 

overhead) not at 12:00:00 by your watch, but a few 

minutes earlier. When you are setting up your 

horizontal sundial, you want to know the time the sun 

is directly overhead. There are certainly more 

advanced methods of determining True North, and 

setting sundials for accuracy, but our horizontal 

garden sundials can be set using the methods above. 

You will enjoy watching how the shadows on your 

sundial change through the seasons and how sun time 

really works.

SUNDIALS - TYPES


There are two different types of garden sundials. Horizontal Garden Sundials which lay flat on the ground or can be placed on a pedestal and Armillary sundials that are a bit more detailed in design and have a larger Gnomon.
  • Horizontal sundials have many diffent designs and styles of gnomons.
  • You can place a horizontal garden sundial either in flower beds or on pedestals near the garden or walkway, depending on where the best sun and shadow combo are.
  • Although the time of horizontal sundials isn't quite as accurate as Armillary sundials, they are much easier to position and are very easily moved.
  • Horizontal garden sundials only need to be angled if they were designed for a latitude other than where they are being used.
  • The Armillary sundial takes a little more work on proper placement to see the most accurate time.
  • The Armillary sundial operates basically the same way as the horizontal sundial does.
  • Armillary sundials keep track of time more accurately than a standard garden sundial.
  • Most Armillary sundials have a fixed gnomon aligned with the Earth's rotational axis, as well as a shadow-receiving surface symmetrical to the axis.
  • Armillary Sundials

    Sundials come in many different designs with the same basic theory. When positioned correctly, the sun casts a shadow on the gnomon marking the Roman Numerals or lines on the sundial giving you the time. Sundials come in either the traditionally round shape or as an armillary sundial, which appears more like a globe with an axis running through.
    While horizontal sundials certainly make a statement in your garden, nothing takes your breath away quite like an Armillary Sundial. While an arrow serves as the gnomon and numbers are placed on a curved band, it gives you the time just like a horizontal sundial. Armillaries have some of the same features as horizontal sundials. You can place these sundials on a flat surface or on a pedestal base for added height and elegance, and Armillary Sundials are designed to be used with cast column pedestal bases.
    Sundials are offered with inscriptions, like Robert Browning's quote, "Grow old along with me! The best is yet to be," or Thoreau's motto, "Heaven is under our feet as well as over our heads," and some sundials have features that indicate seasons, sunrise and sunset time, astrological signs and directions on a compass. Because of the immense range, there is a design for everyone.
    Cast Iron SundialsCast Iron Sundials

    Popular Sundial Finishes

    Because sundials are made of durable materials, they are meant to last as sculptures outdoors. There is also a certain uniqueness to a sundial because of its materials, particularly when the sun hits the sundial's finish, whether it be brass, aluminum or cast iron.
    Brass Sundials are shiny and require little to no maintenance. These sundials are finished with polished brass highlights over a dark patina color. They will age gracefully and naturally over time to a full patina or greenish color. Brass Sundials are also naturally non-rusting. If you want to keep the bright finish, use brass polish when needed.
    Although Aluminum Sundials are often dismissed for their light-weight nature, they prove to be a good choice for their simplicity, affordability, and ability not to rust. With gorgeous colors, they're sure to please.
    If looking for an alternative to pricier models, go with Cast Iron Sundials. The beauty of a Cast Iron Sundial is that they begin to take on an antique rust appearance if displayed outdoors. Lately, the rust appearance has become very popular in gardens and gives the sundial a natural, uncultivated look.

SUNDIAL - Positioning

http://www.yardenvy.com/pages/Positioning-a-Sundial.htm

Garden sundials are used as a clock that works via sun time, not clock time. Mathmeticians and historians love the concept of sundials and sun time. Positioning a Garden Sundial to read the time of day as accurately as possible requires some research and study. To make it easier for our customers, we've done all the research.

http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4136/4773167074_6c0a076a05.jpg



The Direction of True North

Horizontal Garden SundialHorizontal Garden Sundial
Sundials need to point in the direction of True North, and the style (either a sharp straight edge or thin rod, often located at the edge or tip of the gnomon) must be aligned with the Earth's rotational axis. The direction of True North is not the same as the north magnetic pole, but instead is marked by the north celestial pole.
  • True North is found at latitude 90N, and is the direction along Earth's surface towards the North Pole.
  • A compass will work for small garden sundials, but is not very accurate. A compass only helps to locate the magnetic north, but this will serve the typical garden sundial perfectly well.
  • Garden sundials are designed for function, but many owners are happy just to have a sundial that is close enough to being accurate.
  • You can also position a true vertical object at exactly local noon and mark the shadow. You will want to find a reliable method of marking the shadow at the instant of local noon.
  • You can also position your sundial so that there is no shadow shown at high noon. The shadow should appear to the left in the morning, and to the right in the afternoon.

The Angle of the Gnomon

Horizontal Garden SundialArmillary Sundial
Garden and Armillary Sundials are often bought as gifts, and when traveling. Bringing home a sundial that was produced outside of your area of longitude will require that you check the angle of the gnomon. The gnomon is a bar or stretched wire parallel to the celestial axis, and the face is a semi-circle. A sundial made for the south of Spain will have an angle of 37 and will not tell the correct time if it is set up with the horizontal dial plate in Birmingham, Alabama where latitude is 52.5N. You should check the angle of your gnomon regardless of where it was purchased and is set up, just to be certain your sundial is ready to tell sun-time.
  • A common method for checking the angle of the gnomon is to measure the angle with a protractor, and then crosscheck your measurement to ensure that the hour lines have been laid out correctly.
  • You can back-calculate the gnomon angle from the angles of the hour lines.
  • For example, the angle of the 9am and 3pm hour lines from the noon line is 2624 at 30N, 2950 at 35N, 3244 at 40N, 3516 at 45N, 3727 at 50N, and 3920 at 55N.
  • Additional information can be found through research for more complicated sundials and gnomons.
  • If your gnomon is indeed angled incorrectly for your geographical location, you can use a wedge to bring the gnomon parallel to the earth's axis.
  • Armillary sundials are equiangular with straight hour lines that are equally spaced apart.
  • To correct for longitude with an armillary sundial, rotate the dial surface by the difference in longitude without changing the gnomon.
The research above should be able to set up a garden sundial as accurately as possible. Enjoying the beauty and function of your sundial will be a different kind of experience after learning about sun time vs. clock time, the direction of true north, and how to angle your gnomon correctly.

SUNDIAL - MAKE


Making a Horizontal Sundial for 35 Degrees Latitude

Materials: Intermediate

for each sundial you will need...

  • A small wooden disk
    (Craft checkers work great!)
  • Approx. 1 yard of cording
    (leather, plastic canvas, yarn ...)
  • A 3/4"-1" nail
    (copper nails are attractive)
  • Pencil
  • Black Pen
  • Scissors
  • Index card
  • Hammer
  • Drill (optional)
  • Key chain ring (optional)
  • Protractor
  • A sheet of paper

If you want to make your sundial into a necklace or keychain you might want to drill a hole in the checker, or have someone drill the hole for you, to pass the string through. OR you could screw an eye hook into the top and pass the string through there. BE CREATIVE, and enjoy! 

On a sundial, the gnomon is the piece of the sundial which casts its shadow onto the sundial face. In our project we will use a copper nail as the gnomon.
For a horizontal sundial we want the gnomon to be aligned with the North Celestial Pole so that the sun will rotate around it when we face our sundial due north.

Preparing the wooden checker


To align our gnomon along this axis we must position it such that it makes an angle equal to the latitude angle where it will be used with the horizontal face of the sundial. (See below)

The easiest way to get the nail into the wooden checker at this angle is to do the following. First, hammer the nail straight into the center of your wooden checker making sure not to go through the back side.
On an index card draw a line that is inclined from the bottom of the card at an angle equal to your latitude.
Hammer the nail from the side so that it begins to bend over.
Place the index card behind the bent nail, with the start of the line at the base of the nail. Continue to bend the nail over until it is at the same angle as the line you have on your index card.
Now the nail should be making an angle equal to your latitude with the base of the checker. It should look like the image above.
If the nail become loose, a little wood glue at the base should secure it.
Drill a hole in the wooden checker on the opposite side from where the nail is pointing. Make sure to drill the hole large enough so that the cord you have chosen will fit through it.
***Note***
If you do this activity with a large group of young children it is often best to prepare the checkers up to this point ahead of time.
**********
You are now ready to put on the hourlines for the sundial.

Making the hourlines


On a horizontal sundial the position of the lines that indicate what hour it is also depend on the latitude. In this lesson we will use a protractor to measure the angles needed to create the image seen here. 


To begin construction of the hourline template, place your protractor on a sheet of paper such that the straight edge is near the bottom. Draw a horizontal line on the paper using the bottom edge of the protractor. Without moving the protractor make a pencil tick at the 90 degree mark, which should be at the top of your protractor. Now turn the protractor sideways and use the long edge to draw a vertical line from the tick mark down to the horizontal line. You have just created the noon, and six o'clock lines!
You can now use the table on the right to draw each hourline at the appropriate angle from the verticle noon line. You do not need to pay attention the the hour angle column. If you would like to learn how to calculate these angles yourself go to the hourline section of the advanced lesson.
Begin by placing your protractor sideways on your paper so that it looks like the letter D. You want the long edge along the vertical line and the middle of that long edge where the verticle and horizontal lines cross. If you look at the angle markings on your protractor there should be a zero written at the top, along your verticle line and a 90 written on the right where your horizontal line is drawn. Hold the protractor very still and use the numbers written along the curve of the protractor to make a tick with your pencil at each of the angle values in the last column of the table to the right.
Once you have made all the marks to the right of the verticle line, turn your protractor around so that the curve is now going to the left. Line up the zero with the verticle line and the 90 with your horizontal line and repeat the process of making tick marks at each angle value from the last column in the table above.
Now use the straight edge of your protractor to connect each tick mark to the intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines. You final template should look like the one at the beginning of this section.
Once you have a hard copy of the image above, place your wooden checker on top of the image such that the center of the checker, where the nail hole is, is directly over the intersection of the horizontal and vertical lines. The horizontal line, marked with a six on each side, should run underneath your checker exactly across the center.


Without shifting the checker, rotate it until the head of the nail is pointing up the 12 o'clock line, as seen in the image to the left.



Holding the checker very still, make 13 pencil marks on the top face of the wood, each mark inline with the appropriate hourline. It is best to start with pencil so you can redo any mistakes.

Once you have made all of the hour marks go over them in pen and write in the appropriate numbers. Because the face of our sundial is so small, it is best to include only a few of the hour numbers, as in the image to the right.
Finish your sundial by threading the drilled hole with some cording and tie it off to the desired length.


The moment of truth!


To use your new sundial, take it outside on a sunny day, hold it perfectly horizontal, and point the head of the gnomon (nail) due north. The shadow cast by the gnomon should fall on the appropriate hourline.

ENJOY!!!!

***ACCURACY*** 
To compare the time on the sundial you construct to the time on a clock, there are several adjustments which should be made. The North American Sundial Society has a nice page which discusses these adjustments. Visit: Sundial Time vs. Clock Time 

****REMEMBER****
During daylight savings time you will need to add one hour to the time on your sundial in order to agree with local "clock" time.